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永利网站网址机器翻译已对国际贸易产生重大影响,国际翻译学研究资源

原标题:译事 | 最新研究!机器翻译已对国际贸易产生重大影响

一、主要翻译研究数据库:

作为智库型研究与资讯平台,译世界【官方微信号译·世界(YEEWORLD)】推出“译事”栏目,聚焦全球语言服务行业,以专业的视角、前沿的眼光,通过双语译介、原创策划等多种形式,评述行业现象、观察业态发展,欢迎关注!本期为第三十三期

西班牙阿利坎特大学(University of
Alicante)的口笔译文献数据库:

如今,机器翻译发展得如火如荼,却鲜有真实的实验数据证明机器翻译到底对各行各业造成了什么样的影响。近日,来自美国国家经济研究局的研究人员率先检验了机器翻译和人工智能对贸易与工业的实质性影响,并发表了论文。他们得出了怎样的结论?欢迎关注本期译事。

荷兰约翰·本杰明出版公司(John
Benjamins)的翻译研究文献数据库:

A group of researchers at the National
Bureau of Economic Research (NBER) have written a working paper entitled
“Does Machine Translation Affect International Trade? Evidence from a
Large Digital Platform.” The NBER is a private, non-profit organization
that performs and disseminates economic research and one of the most
influential think tanks on economic policy in the United States.

二、翻译研究资源网站:

美国国家经济研究局的一组研究人员写了一篇题为《机器翻译对国际贸易有影响吗?依据大型数字平台论证》的研究手稿(译者注:working
paper指还未正式发表的学术论文、书刊篇章或评论)。美国国家经济研究局是一家从事并发布经济研究成果的民间非营利组织,是美国经济政策方面最有影响力的智库之一。

Anthony Pym works on translation and intercultural studies:

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Center for Research and Innovation in Translation and Translation
Technology :

The paper explains that as one of the
most significant technological advances today, artificial intelligence
(AI) is poised to impact work, trade, and the economy. However,
“empirical evidence documenting concrete economic effects of using AI is
largely lacking.” The study is one of the first to examine the
material impact machine translation (MT), and AI in general, is having
on trade and industry.

这篇论文指出,人工智能作为当今一大技术进步,将对工作、贸易和经济产生影响,然而“却鲜有文献用实验证据论证人工智能对经济产生的实际影响”。该研究率先检验了机器翻译和人工智能对贸易与工业的实质性影响。

三、主要翻译研究期刊:

The paper by Erik Brynjolfsson, a
Professor at MIT’s Sloan School of Management, Xiang Hui, and Meng Liu
was published in August 2018. It looks at how eBay’s machine translation
engines have affected international trade on the platform. This analysis
is used as evidence “of direct causal links between AI adoption and
economic activities.”

  1. Forum:

永利网站网址,该文由麻省理工学院斯隆管理学院教授Erik
Brynjolfsson以及Xiang Hui和Meng
Liu著成,于2018年8月发布。文章研究了eBay(译者注:美国最大的在线商品交易平台之一)的机器翻译引擎对其平台上的国际贸易有何影响。这个分析结果用于论证“人工智能应用和经济活动之间的直接因果联系”。

FORUM was founded in 2003 by the joint efforts of researchers from KSCI
and ESIT. It is a refereed international Translation Studies Journal,
bilingual English/French, and appears twice a year. FORUM is supported
by UNESCO’s Clearing House for Literary Translation. The Journal’s
primary objective is to offer publication space to Translation Studies
researchers not only from Western countries, but also from Asia, Africa
and the Middle-East. The papers published in FORUM deal with a variety
of issues: translation of technical texts, literature, philosophy and
poetry, interpreting in its various modes, the teaching of translation
and interpreting, and often offer regional points of view. They apply a
variety of liberal arts or empirical methodologies.

Consumers Benefit

Editorial email address:
forum.tni永利网站网址 2gmail.com

顾客受益

ISSN 1598-7647 | E-ISSN 2451-909X | Electronic edition

eBay has developed its own inhouse MT
engines (eMT) for multiple language pairings. The study focuses on the
English to Spanish eMT, which was introduced in 2014, and looks at its
effect on international trade based on US exports.

This journal is peer reviewed and indexed in: ANVUR Riviste
scientifiche (ANVUR/Scientifiche) ; CNKI ; ERIH PLUS ; IBR/IBZ ;
Linguistic Bibliography/Bibliographie Linguistique ; Linguistics and
Language Behavior Abstracts  ; MLA International Bibliography ; Scopus ;
Translation Studies Bibliography

eBay自主研发了多语配对机器翻译引擎。本文基于美国出口情况,主要研究了2014年引入的英语-西班牙语机器翻译引擎,及其对国际贸易的影响。

  1. Translation, Cognition & Behavior:

According to then eBay Staff MT Language
Specialist Juan Rowda in an article he wrote for Slator in November
2016, “human translation is not viable” for the company. He said as of
that writing, the company had 800 million listings of around 300 words
each. “It would take 1,000 translators 5 years to translate only the 60
million listings eligible for Russia,” Rowda said, contextualizing the
problem that eMT was meant to solve.

Translation, Cognition & Behavior focuses on a broad area of research
generally known as cognitive translation studies – a term that
encompasses new conceptual paradigms being explored in cognitive
translatology as well as traditional translation process research.
Cognitive translation studies intersects with a number of disciplines,
and the journal welcomes interdisciplinary research from philosophy,
cognitive science, psychology, bilingualism studies, anthropology,
artificial intelligence, ergonomics, and, indeed any discipline that can
illuminate our understanding of the mental processes that underlie the
complex observable behavior of cross-language communication.

2016年11月,当时在eBay供职的机器翻译语言专家Juan
Rowda投稿给Slator写道eBay“养不活人工翻译”。他说,eBay公司有8亿个商品,每个商品有大概300字描述。“如果雇佣1000个译员,需要5年才能仅仅翻译完给俄罗斯提供的6000万个商品。”Rowda说,机器翻译引擎正是要解决这样的问题。

The overall objective of the journal is to connect rigorous descriptions
of the observable activities of translators and interpreters – as the
result of ethnographic, experimental or corpus research – to conceptions
of the translating mind and brain. Translation, Cognition & Behavior
will thus publish empirical and theoretical contributions focusing on
the cognitive and behavioral aspects of a broad range of cross-language
activities including all kinds of translation and interpreting tasks and
subtasks, but also other unique forms of communicative mediation,
professional or otherwise.

The NBER paper finds that “the
introduction of a machine translation system has significantly increased
international trade on this platform, increasing exports by 17.5%
.”
Although, using a number of different control samples, the results vary
from a positive change of between 11.8% and 20.9%.

Topics of specific interest include, but are not limited to the
extension of general cognitive research paradigms (e.g.,
computationalism, connectionism, embodied, embedded, extended, enacted,
affective, distributed cognition) into cognitive translation studies;
the development and learning of translation skills (e.g., expertise,
cognitive aspects of translation teaching and learning, translation
competence); cognitive research methods (eye tracking, keystroke
logging, neuroimaging, and so on); and explorations of how the
environment influences people’s behavior and cognitive processing when
performing communicative tasks (ergonomics, human–computer interaction,
usability studies).

美国国家经济研究局的研究显示“机器翻译系统的引进极大促进了eBay平台的国际贸易,出口量增加了17.5%”。若使用大量不同的控制样本,该数据结果介于11.8%至20.9%之间。

ISSN 2542-5277 | E-ISSN 2542-5285 | Electronic edition This journal is
peer reviewed and indexed in: CNKI ; Glottolog ; IBR/IBZ ; Linguistic
Bibliography/Bibliographie Linguistique ; Linguistics and Language
Behavior Abstracts  ; MLA International Bibliography ; Translation
Studies Bibliography

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  1. Journal of Translation Studies:

eMT is having more of an impact on
products that are differentiated, cheaper, or contain more words in
listing titles, and is particularly effective for less experienced
buyers, the study also found. Another interesting finding is that
consumers seemed to “benefit from eMT more than sellers do […] because
consumers gain both from reduced language frictions and also from lower
prices.”

The Journal of Translation Studies is a double-blind peer reviewed
bilingual journal (English and Chinese) devoted to all aspects of
translation studies. While the journal has a special focus on the
history, theory and practice of Chinese-English, English-Chinese
translation, it also publishes high-quality articles on research
regarding other language combinations and/or general theoretical aspects
of translation. The Journal also publishes book reviews by invitation.
Contributions may be submitted all year round.

该研究还发现,机器翻译引擎对可区分的、价格更低的或标题中包含更多词汇的产品影响更大,而且对那些缺乏购买经验的买家尤其有效。另一个有趣的发现是,买家似乎比卖家更能从机器翻译引擎中获益,因为它既能帮买家减少语言障碍,又能帮买家找到低价商品。

台湾学术文献库:

Language Barriers Have Greatly Hindered
Trade

  1. Mon TI. Monographs in Translation and Interpreting:

语言障碍极大阻碍了贸易

MonTI is an academic, peer-reviewed and international journal fostered
by the three public universities with a Translation Degree in the
Spanish region of Valencia (Universitat d’Alacant, Universitat Jaume I
de Castelló and Universitat de València). Our first priority is to
publish texts providing an in-depth analysis of translation- and
interpreting-related matters that meet high standards of scientific
rigour, foster debate and promote plurality.MonTI will publish one
thematic issue each year, with a maximum of 600 pages, first as a hard
copy journal (ISSN: 1889-4178) and, after a six-month interval, as an
online journal (ISSN: 1989-9335), taking advantage of the digital
platform provided by the University of Alicante. In order to ensure both
linguistic democracy and dissemination of the journal to the broadest
readership possible, the hard-copy version will publish articles in
German, Spanish, French, Catalan and English. The online version is able
to accommodate multilingual versions of articles so that authors who so
desire can provide a copy of their article in a language other than the
stipulated languages of publication. Furthermore, an attempt will be
made to provide an English-language translation of all articles not
submitted in this language. We would like to make special mention of our
commitment to meeting international quality criteria. Thus, the journal
will invite experts in each of the subject areas related to Translation
and Interpreting to serve as issue editors. There will be an open call
for papers for each issue, and at least 75% of the contributing authors
will always be from universities other than our own. Each contribution
will be peer-reviewed by two preeminent researchers or professionals,
and MonTI will provide authors with a detailed explanation when an
article is not considered worthy of publication.Apart from the Board of
Referees, there is a Board of Advisors made up by prestigious scholars
whose main task will be to help us to set our editorial policy and
subject it to assessment.

The results in the research paper are
consistent with other recent research, such as that of Johannes Lohmann
in 2011 and Alejandro Molnar in 2013, who, according to the paper,
“argue that language barriers may be far more trade-hindering than
suggested by previous literature.”

iNDEXINGMonTI is included in the following databases: BITRA, Carhus
Plus+, Dialnet, DICE, ERIH Plus, ESCI (Web of Science), FECYT, ISOC,
Latindex, Redalyc, Scopus & TSB.

该研究论文中的结论与最近几年其它研究得出的结论一致,比如2011年Johannes
Lohmann的研究和2013年Alejandro
Molnar的研究,后者在论文中写道“语言障碍对贸易的制约可能比之前文献所述更甚。”

eMT is not used for product categories,
adverts, or other fixed areas of the webpages, but is specifically
applied to searches. Buyers can search in Spanish, and eMT then enables
eBay to match the search query to its listing titles, which are stored
in English. From here, the eMT translates and displays the listing
titles in Spanish, so the Spanish users only ever need to engage with
Spanish content.

机器翻译引擎不是用于产品目录、广告或者网页的其他固定区域,而是专用于搜索。买家可以使用西语搜索,然后机器翻译引擎能够使eBay将搜索内容与其以英语存储的商品标题列表进行匹配。接下来,机翻引擎翻译并展示西语的产品标题列表,这样西语用户就只需要浏览西语内容。

eBay’s previous translation solution for
searches and item titles relied on Bing Translator, and the proprietary
eMT system represents a “moderate quality upgrade”, according to the
paper.

论文指出,eBay以前的搜索和商品标题的翻译解决方案依赖于微软必应翻译,而专有的机器翻译引擎系统意味着“质量会有一定程度的提升”。

The researchers also analyzed the impact
of eMT in Europe, based on British and Irish exports to France, Italy
and Spain, and concluded that “the rollout of eMT in Europe confirms the
finding that machine translation increases exports on eBay.”

研究人员还结合英国和爱尔兰对法国、意大利、西班牙的出口情况,分析了机器翻译引擎对欧洲的影响,从而得出结论称机器翻译引擎在欧洲上线运营,证实了机器翻译确实促进了eBay上的出口贸易这一研究结果。

Overcoming language barriers is also
high on the agenda for Europe’s efforts to create a Digital Single
Market with the European Union investing millions into language
technologies.

打破语言障碍同样是欧洲为打造“数字单一市场”所做的一项重要工作,欧盟已经在语言技术上投入了数百万资金。

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In 2017, Slator covered a EUR 5.8m
contract for automated translation and an additional EUR 2.4m tender for
extending the automated translation platform’s services and connecting
it with other cross-border and pan-European initiatives.

2017年,Slator网站报道了一项580万欧元(约合人民币4619万元)的自动化翻译合同和一项240万欧元(约合人民币1911万元)的招标,招标内容包括拓展该自动化翻译平台的服务项目,并使之与其他跨国和泛欧举措相关联。

This year, the Human Language Project by
the German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence (DFKI) is
rallying support for a 10-year project worth EUR1bn, while around EUR5m
in grant funding has been allocated for low resource language data and
MT implementation.

今年,德国人工智能研究中心开展的人类语言工程正在为一个为期10年、价值10亿欧元(约合人民币79.6亿元)的项目争取支持,目前已拨付补贴约500万欧元,用于支持资源匮乏的语言数据项目,落实机器翻译。

In the NEBR paper’s conclusion, the
authors note that MT “has made the world significantly smaller and more
connected.”

在该论文的结论部分,作者指出机器翻译“明显让世界变小,彼此更加相通。”

Potential for Rapidly Increasing
Trade

促进贸易潜在快速增长

Back to eBay. NEBR also found that MT
afforded eBay a reduction in translation-related search costs, owing to
improved translation quality, which increased search matching accuracy
and the quality of titles of listings.

继续以eBay为例。美国国家经济研究局还发现,机器翻译为eBay降低了涉及翻译的搜索成本,因为翻译质量有所改善,进而提高了搜索匹配的精准度和商品标题的译文水平。

Compared to other potential applications
of machine learning technology such as self-driving cars for example,
the NEBR researchers say machine translation is relatively easier to
implement. For this reason, its potential for fueling a rapid increase
in trade is particularly significant.

研究人员将机器翻译与机器学习技术的其他潜在应用进行了对比,如自动驾驶汽车。他们表示,机器翻译实施起来相对容易,因此在促进贸易快速增长方面的潜力不容小觑。

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The potential is even more pronounced
given the sheer scale of ecommerce platforms such as eBay, which the
paper notes “mediated more than 14 billion dollars of global trade among
more than 200 countries in 2014.”

考虑到eBay等电商平台的规模,这种潜力更为显著。论文称“2014年机器翻译帮助完成了140多亿美元(约合人民币954.5亿元)的全球贸易,涉及200多个国家。”

MT-powered commerce is certainly an
interesting subject for companies like Amazon, whose research have
prominently featured neural MT and adjacent technologies.

机器翻译助力的贸易自然会引起亚马逊等公司的兴趣。他们的研究大多采用了神经机器翻译和类似技术。

英文来源:Slator

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